Money Science

What you need:Burn Money1
• 2 TB spoons rubbing alcohol
• 1 TB spoon water
• tongs
• safety glasses
• fire extinguisher
• money

What you do:
• Start by preparing a water-alcohol mixture by combining 2 Tb spoons of 70% rubbing alcohol with 1 TB spoon  of water. Make sure to stir the mixture thoroughly.
• Dip a dollar  bill  into the mixture of water and rubbing alcohol, making sure the bill is completely soaked.
• Remove the bill using the tongs – squeeze out any excess liquid.
• Move the water-alcohol mixture to a safe place (away from the area where you are going to light the bill).
• Hold one end of the bill with tongs and light the bottom of the bill.
• The bill will look like it’s burning.
• When the flame is completely extinguished, it’s safe to touch the money… you’ll find that the money is even cool to the touch.

 

 

Crusoe’s Science

Robinson science3If you got stuck on an uninhabited island like Robinson Crusoe you will need to know how to get salt for cooking and drinking water for survival.
So, here you go:

What you need:Robinson science1
• large bowl
• short glass or cup
• tape
• plastic wrap
• small rock
• pitcher of water
• salt
• long spoon for stirring

What you do:
• Make saltwater by adding salt to fresh water.
• Stir the water until the salt dissolves.
• Pour about two inches of saltwater in a large bowl.
• Take an empty glass and put it in the bowl. The top of the glass should be shorter than the top of the bowl, but higher than the saltwater.
• Put plastic wrap over the top of the bowl. You may need to use tape to make sure the seal is tight.
• Put small rock right in the center of the plastic wrap, over the empty glass. That will weigh the plastic down and help you collect the water. Now you’ve made a solar still. It’s called a still because it distills, or purifies, water.
• Leave your still outside in the sun.
• Leave it alone for a few hours, or even a whole day. The longer you leave it out, the more water you’ll collect.
• When you’re ready to check your still, take the plastic wrap off and look at the water that’s collected in the cup. Do you think it’s salty or fresh?
• Taste it.

Robinson science2

Tip: Rays from the sun heat up the salty water in the bowl. When the water gets warm, it evaporates and becomes a gas. When the gas rises and hits the plastic wrap, it turns back into water droplets. Eventually, gravity makes the water droplets roll down the plastic wrap towards the rock. Then the water droplets slide off the plastic wrap into the glass. The salt doesn’t evaporate, so it gets left behind in the bowl. Water evaporates in the same way from lakes, rivers, and oceans. The water heats up, turns into a gas, and then condenses to fall back down as rain.

Jellyfish

JellyfishThe jellyfish belongs to the hybroid family of creatures; this Latin name means “waterlike”. It is ninety-nine percent water, so its flesh is as fluid as the white of an egg.

To test this statement you will need:
• Glass
• Water
• Egg white
• Small container/glass/cup
• Food coloring

Jellyfish1What you do:
• Add a little bit of food coloring to the egg white and mix it slightly. (You need it to see the ” jellyfish” in the water).
• Fill the glass with water.
• Add the egg white to the glass.
• Observe.
• You’ve got yourself a pet jellyfish.

Magic Bottle

What you need:magic bottle
• a bottle of water
• a needle

What you do:
• Put six small holes near the bottom  of the bottle, all around it.
• Give the bottle to your friend and ask him to have a drink.
• Watch what happens.

When the cap is on the bottle, the air pressure in the bottle is equal to the air pressure outside the bottle. Since the pressure is the same nothing comes out of the uncovered hole at first. When the cap is taken off, the water squirts out of the bottle. The water pressure in the bottle is greater than the air pressure on the out side of the bottle. The reason for this is because the weight of the water caused by gravity has a greater pressure then the air pressure outside of the bottle.

The weight of the water in the bottle causing pressure causes the water to shoot out of the lowest hole the farthest. This is because the height of more water above the hole has more weight and creates a greater pressure that the hole that is higher on the bottle.

Chalk Art

What you need:
• Corn starchChalk Art1
• Water
• Baking Soda
• Food Coloring
• Film Canisters
• Alka-Seltzer
• Paper

What you do:chalk Art2
• Mix together 1/3 part corn starch, 1/3 part soda, and 1/3 part water.
• Fill each film canister 1/3 of the way with the mixture.
• Add few drops of food coloring, mix.
• Take one alka-seltzer tablet and break it into 3-4 pieces.
• Drop the pieces into the canister, and then quickly pop the top on and flip the canister over.
• Stand back and enjoy the art.
• The film canister will fly through the air like a rocket, leaving beautiful art behind.

Exploding Bags

What you need:Exploding Bags1
• sandwich plastic ziplock bag
• 1/2 cup vinegar
• 1/4 cup warm water
• paper towel
• 1 1/2 TB spoon baking soda

What you do:Exploding Bags2
• Tear your paper towel into a 5×5 inch square.
• Place  baking soda into the middle of the square.
• Fold the sides of the square into the middle to create a packet.
• Pour  1/2 cup of vinegar and a 1/4 cup of warm water in the sandwich plastic bag.
• Begin zipping the bag closed.
• When it is half closed drop your time release baking soda packet in and quickly close the rest of the bag.
• Shake the bag a little and then place it on the ground.
• Watch as it begins to fill with air as the baking soda and vinegar react. The bag will fill with air until it bursts with a grand POP!

Crystal Eggs

What you need:Crystal Eggs
• Egg
• Cuticle Scissors
• Paintbrush
• Glue
• Food Coloring
• Alum Powder
• Water
• Paper Towels
• Bowl
• Beaker/Glass
• Spoon

What you do:
• Carefully cut the shell in half, down the egg’s length, with a pair of scissors. If there are any small pieces around the edges, go ahead and pull them off. Use the egg white and the egg yolk for pancakes or something else delicious.
• Continuing to exercise caution, wipe out the inside of the egg with a paper towel. Get the interior surface of the egg as clean and dry as possible without cracking it.
• Drop a small amount of glue into the egg and use a paintbrush to spread it around. Try to cover the entire interior surface, all the way up to the edges, of the egg with glue. Add more glue if needed.
• Before the glue dries, cover it with alum powder.
• Dry it over night.
• Bring two cups of water to the point where it is almost boiling.
• Pour the heated water into a beaker or glass and stir 30-40 drops of food coloring and 3/4 cup of alum powder into the heated water.
• Let the colored alum solution cool for around thirty minutes.
• Place the egg, opening up, into the solution.
• Push the egg to the bottom of the beaker with a spoon and allow the egg  to sit in the solution for 12-15 hours.
• Carefully remove the egg and place it on a paper towel or drying rack to finish the geode-creation process.

NB.: The egg geode is formed through a process called sedimentation. The heated alum solution contains suspended particles of alum powder and as the solution cools, these particles of alum begin settling. When the alum particles settle towards the bottom of the beaker or glass, they begin crystallizing. With the alum-covered egg at the bottom, the alum particles from the solution begin attaching themselves to the egg. Covering your egg in alum powder beforehand gives the suspended alum particles a surface to which they can more readily attach themselves. The particles that settle onto the surface of the egg crystallize, and you will also see crystallization on the bottom and sides of the beaker or glass.

South Beach

DSC_0350If you are visiting Miami, then visiting South Beach is a MUST. Do not miss the Ocean Drive and taking a dip in the ocean. the water is so pretty, looks Caribbean for sure. Plenty of entertainment as you walk along Ocean Drive and a wonderful stretch to take pictures. A short stroll to Lincoln road for more Restaurants and great shops. The beach is well groomed and nice to visit. We enjoyed swimming in the gentle waves. You can go pretty far out without it dropping off over your head. public parking is affordable and easy to get to. Couple blocks from the beach.

DSC_0343We loved walking down the Art Deco District. Miami Beach’s Art Deco District is the first 20th-century neighborhood to be recognized by the National Register of Historic Places, with 800 structures of historical significance, most built between 1923 and 1943. The fanciful pastel buildings, with porthole windows, ship-like railings, sleek curves, glass blocks, shiny chrome, and gleaming terrazzo floors are prime eye candy.

We started our  stroll where 5th Street dead-ends into the beach at Ocean Drive, heading north. As we walked along Ocean Drive, we saw  the porthole windows, curved metal rails and flags copied from the big ocean liners that docked at the Port of Miami in the 1930s. Tried to  to shoot postcard pictures of each hotel but we definitely have to go back to take better ones.  The most beautiful ones are:  Park Central HotelPark Central (between 6th and 7th streets). Built in 1937 and renovated in 1987, it was the first hotel to be returned to its original splendor. The hotel was a hangout for Hollywood stars, such as Clark Gable, Carole Lombard, and Rita Hayworth.

Beacon HotelAlso in the 700 block of Ocean Drive: the wedding cake-like 1936 Beacon Hotel and the 1935 Colony Hotel, with its prominent sign and neon accents.

Cross the street to linger at  Lummus Park at Ocean Drive and 7th Street, where you can take a few steps east, over a dune, and be on the beach. Look back to the west for a great view of the Art Deco skyline, particularly stunning at night, when the hotels turn on their neon signs. There are usually musicians singing and playing bongos or guitars in the park.

 

Back on Ocean Drive,we kept  keep moving north past the Waldorf Towers, 860 Ocean Dr., with its round glass tower that looks like a lighthouse. When we got  to 10th Street, we saw Art Deco Welcome Center. It’s home to the Miami Design Preservation League (www.mdpl.org), which formed in 1976 to save the historical hotels from being razed by developers and restore them to their glory days. There are  books, brochures, and guided tours here. Self-guided tours are available Wednesday through Sunday.

 

Water Density

What you need:Water density
• Clear glass or Jumbo Test Tube
• Pipettes or droppers
• Sugar
• Measuring spoons
• Food coloring
• 4 small cups

What you do:
• Fill your cups with 1 cup of warm water and add food coloring to the water.
• Add 2 tablespoons of sugar to the 1st cup, 4 tablespoons to the 2nd cup, 6 tablespoons to the 3rd cup and 8 tablespoons to the last cup.
• Label each cup with the amount of sugar added.
• Stir the water until the sugar is dissolved.
• Start with the cup with the most sugar. Using a pipette, dropper or back of a spoon, begin adding the first layer of sugar water.
• After the first layer, things get challenging. Carefully drip the next dense layer onto the surface of the first. The best technique is to place the pipette right above the surface of the first layer and against the glass. Slowly drip the next color onto the first. This will take a lot of patience. Go slow.
• The colors will begin to mix at first and then your original color will start to show.
• Repeat with the next dense color and the least dense color until you have stacked all of the colors.

NB.: The more sugar you add to the water, the more sugar molecules will take over the space, making the water more dense. The cup containing the 5 tablespoons of sugar will be the most dense, the cup with 1 tablespoons will be least dense. That is why we layer them with the most dense liquid at the bottom and the least dense at the top.

Apple Science

What you need:Apple Science1
• Baking sheet or wax paper
• Labeling tape
• Pen or marker
• Tongs
• Bowl
• Knife
• Lemon juice
• Vinegar
• Water
• Salty water
• Dishsoap
• Oil
• Apple

What you do:
• Use the tape to create labels for each type of liquid you will test.
• Place your labels on the baking sheet or wax paper.
• Cut the apple into slices at least 1-cm thick.
• Set out a slice of each food item on the baking sheet or was paper under the heading “Control.”
• Fill the bowl with enough liquid to fully submerge each sample.
• Dip a slice into the liquid with tongs. Be sure to cover the whole slice! Let the extra liquid drip off before placing it under the correct label on the baking sheet or wax paper.
• Rinse out the bowl and repeat until you have made samples with each liquid.
• Record all your observations, taking note of the time.

NT.:  The food’s skin protects the inside “meat” of the fruit or vegetable from damage and debris. When a fruit or vegetable is dropped and the skin is poked or broken, the food often goes bad faster. The reason fruits and some vegetables go brown when they are cut is because the part containing the oxygen-reactive enzyme is exposed. There is then a lot of surface area for the air to come in contact with the food. For the most part, brown fruits and vegetables still taste fine, they just do not look very appetizing.

Acids prevent browning because they react with the oxygen that comes into contact with the surface of the sample. Once all the acid (or whatever else is covering the surface) has reacted with the oxygen or the acid has degraded or washed off, then the sample will start to brown again. Stronger acids, like lemon juice, can even denature the enzyme. This means that the enzyme can no longer perform its original function because of its environment.

Egg Art

What you need:Egg Art1
• Emptied eggshells
• Paint
• Canvas

What you do:
•F ill the eggs with paint.
• Toss the eggs to the canvas.
• Let the masterpiece dry.
• Display.

Cipher Wheel

What you need:Cipher Wheel
• Poster board or two small paper plates
• Scissors
• Ruler or compass
• Pencil
• Brass paper fastener
• Ballpoint pen

What you do:
• Cut two circles (1- 6 inches, 1- 4 inches), from poster board. (You can also use two small paper plates.)
• Cut a 1/2-inch-wide V-shape and a 1/2-inch-round window in one circle wheel, as shown.
• Use the pencil to poke a small hole in the center of both wheels.
• Attach the wheels with a brass paper fastener.
• Divide the circles into 26 spaces with a ruler.
• Write the alphabet A to Z on both circles.

Make a second wheel for your friend that matches yours exactly so you can write and decode secret messages.

N.B.: The cipher disk (wheel) was invented in 1467 by Leon Battista Alberti, a famous Italian philosopher and architect.
Alberti used two different alphabets located on concentric rings – this means one ring is inside of or on top of another. By lining up two different letters, one from each ring, he could make a simple substitution alphabet in which he could create a cipher.
For example, if he aligned the A on the outer ring with the G on the inner ring, this would make the following substitution alphabet used to encrypt a message:

OUTER RING: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
INNER RING: GHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEF

From there, he could encrypt his message and send it to someone who knew the secret to revealing the message.